N-Aceytl Cysteine (NAC) is therapeutically and nutritionally used to improve health in humans. The most important of reasons is because it is an essential building block of glutathione, the body's most powerful antioxidant. NAC is valued for its ability to increase glutathione in the body and help with a variety of respiratory conditions, fertility, detoxification, and brain health.
N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) is the supplement form of cysteine. Cysteine is considered a “semi-essential” amino acid because it can be produced in small amounts by the human body. Our bodies can usually manufacture cysteine from the amino acids serine and methionine. However, your body must have adequate amounts of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 for that to be possible. This is why supplementing with N-Acetyl Cysteine is most often necessary to get its numerous health benefits.
#1 - PRODUCTION OF MASTER ANTIOXIDANT - GLUTATHIONE
The most valued role of N-Acetyl Cysteine is in antioxidant production. NAC, along with glutamine and glycine, is used by the body to make glutathione, the master antioxidant in the body. Supplementing with glutathione can significantly increase circulating levels of glutathione in the body. [1,4,5] Glutathione is the body's most important antioxidant. Glutathione is known to neutralize free radicals (thereby fighting cellular damage), promotes detoxification, is essential for immune health, combats oxidative stress, and promotes longevity.
#2 - DETOXIFICATION
N-Acetyl Cysteine is an important part of detoxification. A variety of factors may determine glutathione requirements, including level of exposure to toxins, increased phase I detoxification activity, and overall need for antioxidant support. Once NAC promotes production of glutathione, glutathione is incorporated into crucial antioxidant enzymes (e.g., glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and detoxification enzymes (glutathione S-transferases). Through the activity of these enzymes, glutathione directly supports antioxidant activity, phase II detoxification, and the normal breakdown of metabolites, toxins, and other compounds in the body. Glutathione also participates in fatty acid synthesis and amino acid transport across the cell membrane.
The liver and kidneys are two of the main detoxification organs in the body. NAC also has applications in preventing or diminishing liver and kidney damage due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
#3 - BRAIN HEALTH
NAC has the ability to regulate glutamate, the most important neurotransmitters in the brain. Glutamate is required for normal brain function. When combined NAC's ability to replenish glutathione, this makes N-Acetyl Cysteine a powerful way to boost brain health. Research shows that NAC can play a significant role in improving symptoms associated with brain and memory ailments including Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and tremors. [16,17] Research has also liked NAC to improvements in depression, bi-polar disease, schizophrenia, moderate to severe OCD, and decreasing withdraw symptoms cocaine addicts. [18-23]
#4 - RESPIRATORY HEALTH
NAC’s antioxidant and expectorant capacity can improve lung function by decreasing inflammation as well as breaking up mucus. As an antioxidant, NAC can increase glutathione levels in your lungs, reducing inflammation in the lung tissue and bronchial tubes. Therefore, N-acetyl cysteine has applications in relieving symptoms of nasal and sinus congestion due to allergies or infections, but also more severe cases like bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). [27-29]
#5 - FERTILITY
An estimated 15% of couples trying to conceive struggle with infertility. N-Aceytl Cysteine has been shown to improve fertility in both men and women. Many male infertility issues are a result of free radical damage in the reproductive system due to a lack of antioxidants. NAC can help in these situations. There was another study that showed that men supplementing with NAC and selenium for 26 weeks had improved semen quality. [24,25] N-acetyl cysteine has also been shown to help female fertility in women with PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) by inducing or augmenting the ovulation cycle. 
#6 - STABILIZE BLOOD SUGAR
High blood sugar and obesity lead to inflammation in the fat cells. Animal studies have shown that NAC can stabilize blood sugar by decreasing inflammation in fat cells, resulting in improved insulin resistance. When insulin receptors are healthy, they properly remove sugar from your blood and keep your blood sugar stable. [30,31]
#7 - IMMUNE FUNCTION
NAC boosts glutathione levels in the body. Since glutathione is the most powerful antioxidant in the human body, increased levels positively impact the function of the overall body. And this includes the immune system. Increased levels of glutathione in the body improves immune function. Research on certain diseases associated with NAC and glutathione deficiency suggests that immune function might be improved — and potentially restored — by supplementing with NAC. 
#8 - HEART HEALTH
Oxidative damage to the heart often leads to heart disease like stroke, heart attacks, and other life-threatening conditions. NAC can reduce oxidative damage to the heart, which in turn may decrease your risk of heart disease. NAC has also been shown to increase nitric oxide production. Nitric oxide helps dilate veins and improve blood flow, which can lower the risk of heart attacks. 
Recommended Usage:Take one to two capsules twice daily between meals, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Consult your healthcare practitioner prior to use. Individuals taking medication should discuss potential interactions with their healthcare practitioner. Do not use if tamper seal is damaged.
Does Not Contain:Wheat, gluten, corn, yeast, soy, animal or dairy products, fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, egg, ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), artificial colors, artificial sweeteners, or artificial preservatives.
1. Krinsky DL, LaValle JB, Hawkins EB, et al. Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide. 2nd ed. Hudson (OH): Lexi-Comp; 2003.
2. Grandjean EM, Berthet P, Ruffmann R, Leuenberger P. Efficacy of oral long-term N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchopulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of published double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clin Ther. 2000 Feb 22(2):209-21. [PMID: 10743980]
3. Yalçin E, Altin F, Cinhüseyinoglue F, et al. N-acetylcysteine in chronic blepharitis. Cornea. 2002 Mar;21(2):164-8. [PMID: 11862087]
4. Ottenwalder H, Simon P. Differential effect of N-acetylcysteine on excretion of the metals Hg, Cd, Pb and Au. Arch Toxicol. 1987 Jul;60(5):401-2. [PMID: 3662815]
5. Keogh JP, Steffen B, Siegers CP. Cytotoxicity of heavy metals in the human small intestinal epithelial cell line I-407: the role of glutathione. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1994 Nov;43(3):351-9. [PMID: 7966443]
6. Witschi A, et al. The systemic availability of oral glutathione. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;43:667-9. [PMID: 1362956]
7. De Rosa SC, et al. N-acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione in HIV infection. Eur J Clin Invest 2000 Oct;30(10):841-2. [PMID: 11029607]
8. Atkuri KR, Mantovani JJ, Herzenberg LA, et al. N-Acetylcysteine—a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiency. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007 Aug;7(4):355-9. Review. [PMID: 17602868]
9. White AC, Thannickal VJ, Fanburg BL. Glutathione deficiency in human disease. J Nutr Biochem. 1994;5:218-26. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/... Updated January 27, 2003. Accessed February 27, 2012.
10. Pace GW, Leaf CD. The role of oxidative stress in HIV Disease. Free Rad Biol Med. 1995;19:523-8. [PMID: 7590404]
11. Favier A, Sappey C, Leclerc P, et al. Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in patients infected with HIV. Chem Biol Interact. 1994 Jun;91(2-3):165-80. Review. [PMID: 8194133].
12. Nakamura H, Masutani H, Yodoi J. Redox imbalance and its control in HIV infection. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2002 Jun;4(3):455-64. [PMID: 12215212]
13. Roberts RL, Aroda VR, Ank BJ. N-acetylcysteine enhances antibody-dependent cellular toxicity in neutrophils and mononuclear cells from healthy adults and human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Infect Dis. 1995 Dec;172(6):1492-502. [PMID: 7594708]
14. Hu HL, Forsey RJ, Blades TJ, et al. Antioxidants may contribute in the fight against ageing: an in vitro model. Mech Ageing Dev. 2000 Dec 20;121(1-3):217-30. [PMID: 11164475]
15. De Andrade KQ, et al. Oxidative stress and inflammation in hepatic diseases: Therapeutic possibilities of n-acetylcysteine. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Dec 18; 16(12): 30269-308. [PMID: 26694382]
16. Mokhtari V, Afsharian P, Shahhoseini M, et al. A review on various uses of n-acetyl cysteine. Cell J. 2017 Apr-Jun; 19(1): 11-17. PMID:28367412.
17. Costa M, Bernardi J, Fiuza T, et al. N-acetylceysteine protects memory decline induced by streptozotocin in mice. Chem Biol Interact. 2016 Jun 25;253:10-7. PMID: 27087133
18. Samuni Y, Goldstein S, Dean OM, Berk M. The chemistry and biological activities of N-acetylcysteine. BBA General Subjects. 2013 Aug; 1830(8): 4117-29.
19. Dean O, Giorlando F, Berk M. N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: Current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2011 Mar; 36(2): 78–86. PMID: 21118657
20. Fernandes BS, Dean OM, Dodd S, Malhi GS, Berk M. N-Acetylcysteine in depressive symptoms and functionality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Apr;77(4):e457-66. PMID: 27137430.
21. Paydary K, Akamaloo A, Ahmadipour A, et al. N-acetylcysteine augmentation therapy for moderate-to-severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2016 Apr;41(2):214-9. PMID: 26931055.
22. Pósfai B, Cserép C, Hegedüs P, et al. Synaptic and cellular changes induced by the schizophrenia susceptibility gene G72 are rescued by N-acetylcysteine treatment. Transl Psychiatry. 2016 May 10;6:e807. PMID: 27163208.
23. Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Kim SW. N-acetylcysteine, a glutamate modulator, in the treatment of trichotillomania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009 Jul;66(7):756-63. PMID: 19581567.
24. Lombardo F, Sansone A, Romanelli F, et al. The role of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of male infertility: an overview. Asian J Androl. 2011 Sep; 13(5): 690–697. PMID: 21685925.
25. Safarinejad MR, Safarinejad S. Efficacy of selenium and/or N-acetyl-cysteine for improving semen parameters in infertile men: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. J Urol. 2009 Feb;181(2):741-51. PMID: 19091331.
26. Badawy A, State O, Abdelgawad S. N-Acetyl cysteine and clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-over trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86(2):218-22. PMID: 17364286.
27. Tirouvanziam R, Conrad CK, Bottiglieri T, et al. High-dose oral N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione prodrug, modulates inflammation in cystic fibrosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006 Mar 21; 103(12): 4628–4633. PMID: 16537378
28. Pirabbasi E, Shahar S, Manaf ZA, et al. Efficacy of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) and/N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Supplementation on Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Male Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2016;62(1):54-61. PMID: 27117852.
29. Stey C, Steurer J, Bachmann S, et al. The effect of oral N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchitis: a quantitative systematic review. European Respiratory Journal 2000 16: 253-262.
30.Ma Y, Gao M, Lui D. N-acetylcysteine Protects Mice from High Fat Diet-induced Metabolic Disorders. Pharm Res. 2016 Aug;33(8):2033-42. PMID: 27161488.
31. Jain SK, Velusamy T, Croad JL, et al. L-cysteine supplementation lowers blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, CRP, MCP-1, and oxidative stress and inhibits NF-kappaB activation in the livers of Zucker diabetic rats. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Jun 15;46(12):1633-8. PMID: 19328229.
32. Liu C, Lu XZ, Shen MZ, et al. N-Acetyl Cysteine improves the diabetic cardiac function: possible role of fibrosis inhibition. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2015 Aug 6;15:84. PMID: 26242742.
33. Anfossi G, Russo I, Massucco P, et al. N-acetyl-L-cysteine exerts direct anti-aggregating effect on human platelets. Eur J Clin Invest. 2001 May;31(5):452-61. PMID: 11380598.
34. Dröge W, Breitkreutz R. Glutathione and immune function. Proc Nutr Soc. 2000 Nov;59(4):595-600. PMID: 11115795.
Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.